San Isidro, El Salvador

San Isidro, Salwador

San Isidro, El Salvador

project director: Dr. Jan Szymański

research location: San Isidro archaeological site, department of Sonsonate, El Salvador, Central America

San Isidro is located in the middle of a natural corridor connecting the Pacific coast with the fertile valleys further inland.

site characteristics: The site has been continuously eroded by heavy agricultural machinery. Currently ca. 50 visible remains of monumental architecture are dispersed over the area of 6.5 km2 on a sugarcane plantation. Dating of surface collections of pottery encompasses the Middle (ca. 1000-400 BC) and the first half of the Late (ca. 400 – 1 BC) Preclassic periods. San Isidro most likely served as a large regional center at the southeastern boundary of Mesoamerica, and western fringe of Central America.

Until 2022, over 50 structures were recorded through drone surveys. Ground-truthing has been underway.

participating institutions: University of Warsaw (Poland), Dirección de Arqueología del Ministerio de Cultura (El Salvador)

dating: tentative, ~1000 – 1 BC


2021-2024 – “Sonata” grant (no. 2019/35/D/HS3/00219) titled. “Na kresach Mezoameryki: badania archeologiczne stanowiska San Isidro w Salwadorze” (“On the Fringes of Mesoamerica: archaeological research at the site of San Isidro, El Salvador”)

2019 – funds from the “Excellence Strategies – Research Academy” program

2018 – “Miniatura” grant provided by the National Center for Sciences (Narodowe Centrum Nauki – NCN), (ID 381403),

research description: So far, seven research campaigns have been carried out, including two seasons of survey (2018 and 2019), one of geophysical prospection (February 2021), three of excavations (March-May 2021, 2022, 2024), and one of laboratory analyses (2023).

In 2018 a field survey was carried out, as well as partial photogrammetric documentation of the visible architectural remains. A drone-based topographic map, albeit interim, has been elaborated. The works continued through 2019. In 2021, a three-season-long excavations begun, focusing on three prominent areas of the site: the Cerrito and Trapiche groups, and El Pato structure.

struktura Cerrito 1

Cerrito 1 before excavations.

In the course of excavations it became apparent that the largest structures at San Isidro are made mostly of clay heaped while wet. Inside the largest building at the site – Cerrito 1 – vestiges of an earlier pyramidal structure were found, perhaps one crowned with an intentionally-destroyed shrine. Basing on radiocarbon analyses, the process of expansion of Cerrito 1 has been dated to ca. 400 BC, while the ceramic data indicates that the original structure was erected no earlier than 650 BC.

Uncomplicated constructive methods contrast with particularly large size of the site, and with rich offerings purposefully deposited within the fill of Cerrito 1. Among these, a few stacks of vessels were found, along with jade jewelry in the form of tubular and globular beads and a miniature pendant representing an abstract avian personage with folded arms. Beside it, a group of large ceramic figurines with movable heads were found, of which one represents a male with tattooed face, accompanied by two smaller figurines probably symbolizing children. Such figurines, known as Bolinas type. are exceptionally rare. The nature and position of those findings suggest that during the expansion of Cerrito 1 a rich burial was placed in the fill, albeit the body did not survive due to an elevated acidity of the soil and other unfavorable taphonomic conditions.

Miniature jade pendant representing an avian personage
Group of figurines from San Isidro (so-called Bolinas type), of which the large ones (ca. 30 cm) have movable heads

Interestingly, the figurines and the avian pendant have close analogies at a contemporaneous site of Tak’alik Ab’aj, located some 400 km west of San Isidro, on the southern Pacific slopes of Guatemalan Highlands. A well-preserved burial was found there of a ruler with a jade necklace. The necklace’s central element was a relatively large pendant in the form of a human with an avian head and arms folded across the chest. By the head of the ruler, six large Bolinas figurines were placed, of which one had a movable head.

Further analogies indicate that both pendants, that is, the San Isidro and Tak’alik Ab’aj ones, although made of Guatemalan jade, represent a figure typical for Costa Rican iconography, thus coming from ca. 1000 km away in the opposite direction, east of San Isidro. All of this points to an existence of a very early exchange route, along which travelled not only objects, but also ideas. That route cuts across cultural spheres known as Mesoamerica in the west and Isthmo-Colombian Area in the east.

A number of objects found just under the surface on the top of Cerrito 1, including remains of a calcite or travertine vessel, and a miniature jade mask representing a monkey skull, most likely come from much later times (so-called Postclassic Period, AD 900-1520) Central Mexico. Perhaps ethnolinguistic groups that migrated along the Pacific before the Conquest, made offerings on the imposing ruins of a long-abandoned city.

Miniature jade mask representing a monkey skull, most likely coming from Gulf of Mexico area.

The research at San Isidro is ongoing. This site will be (irregularly) updated.


2022; Szymański J.; K. Misiewicz; R. Mieszkowski; J. Martecki, Regional Patterns, Local Techniques: Remote Sensing and Archaeology at prehispanic site of San Isidro, El SalvadorJournal of Archaeological Science: Reports 45.

2020; Szymański J.; Recent Research at San Isidro, El Salvador, in the Context of the Southeastern Mesoamerican Archaeology, Estudios Latinoamericanos 40:1-28.

2018; Szymański J., M. Mendez, M. Toledo, J. Avalos Campos, R. Cabrera, R. Cea; San Isidro: Large Preclassic site at the eastern edge of the Maya Culture, Mexicon 40(40): 100-104.

Finlayson Sarah

Dr Sarah Finlayson

Dr. Sarah Finlayson 
Department of Aegean and Textile Archaeology
Stanisław Ulam programme grantee, NAWA (2024-2025).

Phone number:
+48 22 55 22 814

Research interests:
– Aegean archaeology
– Aegean scripts
– seals and sealing practices
– experimental archaeology

Research project:
Inscribed and impressed: exploring clay sealings from the Bronze Age Aegean as mini-documents in diachronic administrative systems.

Khirbat Sarah (Khirbat as-Sar) – settlement from the Iron Age, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic periods

Person conducting excavation: Dr hab. Mariusz Burdajewicz and Prof. Jolanta Młynarczyk
Site name: Khirbat Sarah (west Amman), MEGA Jordan # 11304 (JADIS 2215017).
Country: the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Involved institutions: Faculty of Archaeology, University of Warsaw; Faculty of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts, Warsaw; Wrocław University of Science and Technology; Department of Antiquities, Jordan. In 2018-2019: Polish Centre of the Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw.
Type of the site: settlement from the Iron Age, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic periods.

Description of the research:
In 2018 and 2019, a team directed by Prof. Jolanta Młynarczyk from the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw conducted two short seasons of work at the ancient site of Khirbat Sarah, located on the western outskirts of Amman. A geophysical and archaeological survey proved the great cognitive potential of Khirbat Sarah as an exemplary site in terms of the longue durée, occupied from the Iron (Ammonite) age till the middle Islamic period at least.

After the break caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, excavations were resumed in 2023, this time on behalf of the Faculty of Archaeology, University of Warsaw. The current project aims to define the chronology and nature of the settlement in the different phases of its history, as well as to better understand its relationship with nearby Amman during the period of over two millennia. This spectacular site, occupying an excellent strategic position on the western edge of the Amman plateau, is crowned by a monumental architectural complex. It consists of an ‘Ammonite tower,’ secondarily used in the Roman period as a temple with an arcaded courtyard added to it. This complex, surrounded by buildings of later periods, still needs to be fully recognized. Finds, mainly pottery, indicate a particularly intensive settlement from the Ayyubid-Mamluk period. Likely, a rural settlement existed here, its inhabitants involved in agriculture and animal husbandry, which provided an agricultural base for the Islamic capital of Amman. On the other hand, the unique combination of an Iron Age Ammonite tower with a temple characterized by Classical architectural order is an interesting issue related to the local community’s adaptation of a Greco-Roman material culture and religion.

The site’s ancient name remains obscure. 19th-century travelers S. Merrill and C.R. Conder identified the site with biblical Azor (Iazer), still mentioned in the 4th century by Eusebius (Onomastikon). Indeed, the very geographical situation and some archaeological evidence for a Hellenistic period habitation might suggest the identity of Khirbat Sarah with the fortified settlement of Jazer, conquered by Judah Maccabee in 163 BC (I Macc. 5,8). Under the Ptolemies, in the 3rd century BC, the site must have been a part of the region administered by the mighty family of Tobiads, suggesting its possible identification with “Birta of the Ammanitis”, mentioned in a letter from the Zeno Archive, dated 259 BC.

Further reading:
Młynarczyk J. and Burdajewicz M., with appendices by R. Ryndziewicz and J. Burdajewicz: Archaeological and geophysical survey at the site of Khirbat as-Sar (Sara), Jordan, Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 27/1 (2018), 341-378 (with earlier bibliography relevant to Khirbat es-Sar).
Villeneuve, F., Khirbet Sara (Jordan) 1983. In: A. Łajtar and K. Jakubiak (eds.), Ex Oriente Lux. Studies in Honour of Jolanta Młynarczyk, Warsaw (2020), 309-322.
Funding statement: The project is financed by the Polish National Science Centre (UMO-2021/43/B/HS3/00813, Opus 22).

Lecture “The way of the Egyptologist”

SKN KEMET has a pleasure to announce a lecture “The way of the Egyptologist” that will be given by dr Daniel Takacs! He will talk about his journey to and through Egyptology as well as answer your questions! It will take place on the 23.11 (on Thursday) at 18.30 at the Faculty of Archaeology of University of Warsaw in room 210 or under this link that’s also available on our fb page!

The way of the Egyptologist
Czwartek, 23 listopada · 6:30–9:00pm

Continue reading “Lecture “The way of the Egyptologist””

Department of Bioarchaeology

00-927 Warszawa, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, Szkoła Główna, pok. 0.26, 0.28, 0.29
tel. 22 55 22 837 i 844

Head of the Department:
Dr. Anna Gręzak

dr hab. Arkadiusz Sołtysiak, prof. ucz.
dr hab. Joanna Piątkowska-Małecka
dr hab. Aldona Mueller-Bieniek, prof. ucz.
Dr. Rafał Fetner
Dr. Elżbieta Jaskulska

dr hab. Wiesław Więckowski, prof. ucz. (Department of Archaeology of the Americas)

PhD candidates:
Monika Dzierlińska, MA
Kamil Niemczak, MA
Joanna Szymczak, MA
Aleksandra Grzegorska, MA
Adam Budziszewski, MA


Bioarchaeology is an integral part of archaeological research, especially helpful in reconstructing the relationship between man and the environment throughout history. In our department we conduct research and teach in the field of archaeozoology, anthropology and archaeobotany. We analyse animal, human and plant remains reconstructing the economy, living conditions, diet, health or origin of people, animals and plants, as well as the environment, trade, intercultural contacts and issues related to cult and religion. We cooperate with many archaeological missions in Poland and abroad, in Europe, as well as in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America.

Department of Numismatics and Museology

00-927 Warsaw, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, Szkoła Główna, room 3.27;  ul. Smyczkowa 14, rooms 306 and 307.

Head of Department:
prof. dr hab. Aleksander Bursche

Department Staff:
dr hab. Roksana Chowaniec
Dr. Ireneusz Jakubczyk
Dr. Piotr Jaworski
Dr. Szymon Jellonek
Dr. Kyrylo Myzgin
Dr. Anna Zapolska

PhD students:
Jakub Artemiuk
Marina Filatova
Robert Janiszewski
Vital Sidarovich

Grants coordinator:
dr hab. Arkadiusz Dymowski

About the Department:
The Department of Numismatics and Museology evolved from the Department of Contacts of the Mediterranean World with Barbaricum, a division of the former Institute of Archaeology UW, with some welcome additions made to our academic staff. The Department specializes in ancient and barbarian numismatics (Photo 1), particularly in the analysis of monetary phenomena and their interpretation, archaeology of the Migration Period in East-Central Europe (Photo 2), museology, and problems of archaeological conservation, monuments protection and cultural heritage management. An important aspect of our research are contacts of the Classical World with communities in the Babaricum, and in particular the broader issue of Roman imports (Photo 3). We publish our findings in successive tomes of the series Corpus der Römischen Funde in Europäischen Barbaricum-Polen with supplements. Another key speciality of our Department are digital numismatics and archaeology (see,


Our recent major achievement was organising the XVI International Numismatic Congress held in the Central Campus of the University of Warsaw in September 2022 (Photo 4), with an attendance of 650 ( We are currently preparing the conference proceedings for publication by Brepols Publishers in 2024. Organisation of the Congress and publication of conference proceedings was financed from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland grant ‘Excellence Science’.

XVI International Numismatic Congress. Opening ceremony in the historic Auditorium Maximum building, University of Warsaw, Poland (Photo 4)

Archaeological fieldwork:
Ten seasons of excavations were conducted by the team of dr hab. Roksana Chowaniec at Akrai (Latin Acrae) a Greek and Roman site in Sicily, located on SW margin of the modern town of Palazzolo Acreide, in a hill in the Hyblean Mountains in what has been the first ever dig run in Italy by Polish mission (Photo 5).

Bird’s-eye view of ancient Akrai, current Palazzolo Acreide, Sicily (Photo 5)

A three-years’ multidisciplinary study financed from the Polish National Science Centre grant ‘Maestro’ of the Hanging Cave, an important late Migration Period site in the Polish Jura at Kroczyce-Okupne, 80 km north of Cracow (Photo 6).

Artefacts from the Hanging Cave in the Polish Jura (Photo 6)

After a 12-years’ break caused by the civil war in Libya archaeological fieldwork was resumed in 2022 in Ptolemais. This large Greek port city was established in the 3rd century BC in Cyrenaica in the eastern region of Libya. In late AD 3rd century it became the capital of the Roman province of Libya Superior. The Polish dig in Ptolemais was initiated in 2001 by Professor Tomasz Mikocki (1954–2007) world class art historian and recognized classical archaeologist. A major highlight of the University of Warsaw dig was the discovery of the House of Leukaktios (3rd c. AD) richly decorated with mosaics and polychrome wall paintings (Photo 7). In 2006 a hoard of Roman coins (tpq = AD 262) was unearthed in the neighbourhood. The Head of the Polish Archaeological Mission to Ptolemais is dr Piotr Jaworski.

House of Leukaktios in Ptolemais, Libya (Photo M. Bogacki, Photo 7)

Website:, Facebook: Polish Archaeological Mission to Ptolemais


The most significant projects implemented in recent years:

Finds of Roman Coins from Poland and lands connected historically with Poland financed from the National Programme for the Development of Humanities (Photo 8);

Migration Period between Odra and Vistula, international project financed from the National Science Centre grant ‘Maestro’ (Photo 9);

Migration Period deposit from the locality Stare Marzy on the Lower Vistula River, Poland (Photo 9)

Imagines Maiestatis. Barbarian Coins, Elite Identities and the Birth of Europe implemented within the international grant of the Polish National Science Centre and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft ‘Beethoven’ together with Deutsches Archäeologisches Institut (DAI).


The Department staff  have been participants of many international projects:

Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire Project a joint venture between the Ashmolean Museum and Oxford Roman Economy Project

Online Coins of the Roman Empire a joint project of the American Numismatic Society and the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University

FLAME Project of the Princeton University Numismatic Collection and the Committee for the Study of Late Antiquity


Current research projects: 

Aleksander Bursche (Project leader), Jakub Artemiuk (PhD student, grantee)

Scientific, legal and practical aspects of archaeological heritage protection in Poland after 1989, a comparative approach;

Implementation: 2022-2026, NCN, Preludium Bis 3 nr 2021/43/O/HS3/01186

The aim of the project is to verify whether the archaeological heritage protection system established in Poland after 1989 serves the research tasks of archaeology, ensures effective protection of archaeological heritage, encourages reporting new archaeological finds to the authorities and prevents crimes against archaeological monuments. An analysis of the solutions adopted for the protection and registration of archaeological monuments in selected countries (Denmark, England and Wales, Belgium, Italy, Romania) will also be made as a part of conducted research.


Arkadiusz Dymowski (Project leader), Kyrylo Myzgin (researcher), Vital Sidarovich (researcher)

Barbarian fakers. Manufacturing and use of counterfeit Roman Imperial denarii in East-Central Europe in antiquity (Barbarzyńscy fałszerze. Wytwarzanie i użytkowanie fałszywych denarów rzymskich z okresu cesarstwa w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej w starożytności)

Implementation: 2019-2024, NCN nr 2018/31/B/HS3/00137

The project addresses the phenomenon of manufacture and use of fake Roman denarii of the first-second centuries AD in East-Central Europe in Antiquity. Recent years have brought a landslide of new finds of these coins, particularly in Eastern Europe, both silver-plated denarii (subaerati), and copies, cast from base metal alloy, but also from alloys with a high silver content, (flati). Until recently the territory of the Roman Empire was viewed as the only centre of production of these coins. However there is no longer any doubt that fake coins were manufactured on a mass scale also on the barbarian territory. This was confirmed in a most spectacular manner by recent discoveries of ancient counterfeiting workshops in our part of Europe. One of the project tasks was non-destructive analysis of coins recovered in Poland, Ukraine and Belarus manufactured in barbarian workshops, the first interdisciplinary study of the production and use of fake Roman coins outside the Greek and Roman world.

Piotr Jaworski (Project leader), Szymon Jellonek (researcher, post-doc)

Coin circulation in the Byzantine and Umayyad Marea/North Hawwariya: studies in the monetary economy of Mareotis region in the hinterland of Alexandria. (Obieg monetarny w bizantyńskiej i umajjadzkiej Marei/Północnej Hawwariji: badania nad gospodarką pieniężną regionu Mareotis na zapleczu Aleksandrii),

Implementation: 2021-2025, NCN OPUS 20, nr 2020/39/B/HS3/03102

Marea/Philoxenite (Northern Hawwariya in Egypt) is an archaeological site approximately 40 km west of Alexandria, on the southern shore of Lake Mareotis. The city experienced a ‘Golden Age’ during the Byzantine period after the emergence of a Christian pilgrimage centre at the nearby Abu Mena. Marea/Philoxenite a large urban centre with an impressive layout presumably owes its existence to its position on pilgrim traffic between Alexandria and Abu Mena Since 2000, comprehensive archaeological research at Marea has been conducted by the University of Warsaw in cooperation with the Archaeological Museum in Krakow, which yielded ca. 8,500 coins. This assemblage collected on a single site from well-understood archaeological contexts can be used in future to recognize the monetary circulation in a large Byzantine city in the hinterland of Alexandria.

Szymon Jellonek (Leader)

Circulation of Late Antique coins in Novae

Small Grant CRAC X

The focus of the project is the nature of the supply and circulation of coins in Late Antique Novae in the Roman province of Moesia Secunda (now Bulgaria) – a military frontier town. Two assemblages of coins will be examined, one recovered from the town centre and one from its margin (‘annex’, the site of a former necropolis) to identify possible differences. The finds derive from recent excavation seasons of the Faculty of Archaeology Expedition led by dr hab. Agnieszka Tomas.

The area described as ‘annex’ in our research was excavated between 2017 and 2021 uncovering the remains of Late Antique structures built on the site of an earlier cemetery. This makes the Late Antique coins an assemblage distinct from the coin finds assemblage of finds from the period of the Principate. While the necropolis has been published (Tomas et al. 2020), the Late Antique phase of this site is currently under analysis. In 2021 fieldwork moved to the site of the retentura, in immediate vicinity of the headquarters (principia). During the most recent seasons Late Antique layers were uncovered corresponding in their chronology to the phases of the ‘annex’.

Kyrylo Myzgin (Project leader)

The neural network of solidi. Contacts between Romano-Byzantine and barbarian worlds in the light of die-linked gold coins found in Europe and Central Asia (Neuronowa sieć solidów. Kontakty pomiędzy światem rzymsko-bizantyńskim i barbarzyńskim w świetle połączeń stempli złotych monet znalezionych w Europie i w Azji Środkowej)

Implementation: 2021-2024, NCN nr 2020/39/B/HS3/01513

Our goal is obtaining new data about political contacts between Romans and Barbarians, and among barbarians themselves, between the 4th and 6th century through the study of the chronology, directions and reasons of the influx of gold coins to the territories beyond the Roman limes, and their redistribution within the Barbaricum. In this respect die-link studies offer a huge potential helping to recognize migration routes of individual coins or their groups. The traditional visual method of die-link analysis using human eyesight is labour intensive and we hope to train Artificial Intelligence to recognize the patterns on coins (deep learning). Our Artificial Intelligence Coin Network (AICN) software will use a convolutional neural network for visual recognition of coin die patterns and links between them.

Vital Sidarovich (researcher)

Understanding a deluge of silver: the Paharelshchyna hoard and the beginnings of the silver flow from central Asia to northern Europe (Zrozumienie “potopu” srebra: Skarb z Paharelshchyny i początki napływu srebra ze środkowej Azji do północnej Europy)

Implementation: 2023-2024, John Fell Fund, University of Oxford

The project will analyse the Paharelshchyna Hoard discovered in north-western Belarus containing 1800+ Arabic dirhams and silver scrap, including a fragment of a currency bar attributed to the Balt environment. The hoard was stolen in 1997 from the Museum of the Belarusian State University History Faculty in Minsk. Most of the coins from the hoard later turned up on auctions across Europe, and some of them passed to public museum collections in Stockholm and Tübingen. A monograph of the Paharelshchyna Hoard will be published in 2024.

Vital Sidarovich (Leader)

Finds of coins of Bithynia from the eastern Barbaricum

Small Grant CRAC IX

The focus of the project research are coins of Bithynia found in Lithuania and Belarus. While Bithynian coins have been interpreted as Gothic war trophies some area recorded outside the territory identified with Gothic cultures, including the territory of modern Lithuania and north-western Belarus inhabited in the Roman Period by Balt communities.

Anna Zapolska (Leader)

Die Gräber mit römischen Münzen aus dem Gräberfeld der Dollkeim-Kovrovo Kultur in ehem. Grebieten

(Groby z monetami rzymskimi z cmentarzyska kultury Dollkeim-Kovrovo w dawnym

The aim of the project is analysis of grave inventories with Roman coins excavated on the Dollkeim-Kovrovo culture cemetery at former Grebieten. After Bolshoe Isakovo (fmr. Lauth) the Grebieten is the cemetery with the largest number of Roman coin finds recorded in the Dollkeim-Kovrovo culture. The grave assemblages in which the coins occurred will be analyzed using archival data, surviving coins and other archaeological objects, and the published record. In addition to a chronological and strictly archaeological analysis, an attempt will be made to determine the function and role of coins and bronzes in the Dollkeim-Kovrovo culture in relation to other West Balt cultures (Western Lithuanian Stone-Circle Graves culture, Bogaczewo culture), and the role of bronze (including Roman coins) in the formation of local West Balt elites.

Seminar – The history of Belarus through the prism of numismatic research

June 6, 17.00 Warsaw time, online seminar


Vital Sidarovich (University of Warsaw)
Antique coins and the beginning of monetary circulation in Belarus

Mikalai Plavinski (University of Warsaw)
Viking Age hoards on the territory of Belarus as numismatic and archaeological sources

Raman Krytsuk (National Museum in Warsaw)
Talers of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: myths and legends

Valery Kabrynets (Independent researcher, Warsaw)
Foreign coin in the circulation of the Commonwealth on the example of the coins of the Russian Tsardom


Bugajska Karolina

Karolina Bugajska
Karolina Bugajska, PhD
Katedra Archeologii Epoki Kamienia


research interests:
– Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Para-Neolithic
– burial rites in the Stone Age
– the Paleolithic and Mesolithic Art
– Bioarcheology
– Cultural anthropology


Gumiński W., Bugajska K., 2023, Painted wood, notch on bone – ornamentation or marking? A case of two neighbouring forager sites, Dudka and Szczepanki, Masuria, NE-Poland, (in) J.M. Grünberg, E. Brinch Petersen, B. Gramsch, T. Płonka, H. Meller (eds.) Mesolithic Art – Abstraction, Decoration, Messages, Tagungen des Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle, Band 26/I, Halle (Saale), 333-359.

Bugajska K., 2023, Purified by fire. Cremation burials in the Stone Age hunter-gatherer cemetery at Dudka, Masuria, northeast Poland, Documenta Praehistorica vol.50 (2023), 110-135, DOI:

Bugajska K., 2021, Cremation Burials of the Stone Age Hunter-Gatherers on the European Plain, Światowit LIX (2020), 15-45.

Bugajska K., 2021, Pit or grave? ‘Emptied’ graves from the cemetery at Dudka, Masuria, north-eastern Poland, (in:) D. Borić, D. Antonović, B. Mihailović (eds.), Foraging Assemblages, Volume 2, Belgrade & New York (Serbian Archaeological Society, The Italian Academy for Advanced Studies in America, Columbia University), 648-655.

Wacnik A., Gumiński W., Cywa K., Bugajska K., 2020, Forests and foragers: exploitation of wood resources by Mesolithic and para‑Neolithic societies in north‑eastern Poland, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 29, 2020: 717-736,

Bugajska K., Gumiński W., 2016, How many steps to heaven?  Loose human bones and secondary burials at Dudka and Szczepanki, (in:) Grünberg J., Gramsch B., Larsson L., Orschiedt J., Meller H. (eds), Mesolithic burials – Rites, symbols and social organization of early postglacial communities. Tagungen des Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle 13/II, 2016, Halle (Saale), 339-455.

Gumiński W., Bugajska K., 2016, Exception as a rule. Unusual Mesolithic cemetery and other graves at Dudka and Szczepanki, Masuria, NE-Poland, (in:) J.M. Grünberg, B. Gramsch, L. Larsson, J. Orschied, H. Meller (eds.), Mesolithic burials – Rites, symbols and social organisation of early postglacial communities, Tagungen des Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle, Band 13/II, Halle (Saale): 465-510.

Bugajska K., 2015, In the ground or in the basket? Burial wrappings from the Stone Age hunters’ cemetery at Dudka, Masuria, NE-Poland. Novensia 26, 10–23.

Bugajska K., 2015, Obrządek pogrzebowy łowców-zbieraczy epoki kamienia w południowej Skandynawii i na Niżu Środkowoeuropejskim, Przegląd Archeologiczny 62 (2014), 5-69.

Howcroft R., Bugajska K., Gumiński W., Kowalewska-Marszałek H., Szczepanek A., Włodarczak P., Eriksson G., 2013, Breastfeeding and weaning practices during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in Poland, (in:) R. Howcroft, Weaned Upon a Time. Studies of the Infant Diet in Prehistory, Thesis and Papers in Scientific Archaeology 14, Stockholm (Stockholm University): 1-27.

Bugajska K., 2011, Ozdoby z grobów łowców (mezolit, paraneolit) – Mazury w kręgu wschodnim czy zachodnim (w:) Stankiewicz U., Wawrusiewicz A. (red.), Na rubieży kultur. Badania nad okresem neolitu i wczesną epoką brązu, Białystok, 359-370.

Research projects:
NCN Opus 20; nr 2020/39/B/HS3/02375, Absolute chronology of burials and loose human bones from the hunter-gatherer Stone Age sites Dudka and Szczepanki in Masuria (NE-Poland)
published results of the project:
– Bugajska, K. (2023). Purified by fire: Cremation burials in the Stone Age hunter-gatherer cemetery at Dudka, Masuria, northeast Poland. Documenta Praehistorica50, 110-135.